Writing an error free project work- Project writing is a compulsory work of every graduating student who which to acquire a degree be it First degree (NCE, OND, HND, B.Sc, B.Eng, B.Ed, B.A etc) or second degree like PGD, PGDE, M.Sc, M.A, Ph.D etc.
This article was prepared for you as a guide on how to write, arrange your project work, reduce error, and avoid calling your friends or supervisor to help you to arrange your work. This post gives you a standard way of project/research writing.
Project writing or Research work is a partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of ******* degree in your course of study. Project must be done before you call yourself a graduate.
Every project writing or Research work begins with the approval of a topic to a student, once a project topic is allocated to a student then, such a student will then make researches on the topic allocated to him/her which is supervised by an academic staff of the school for proper guidance.
So you are advised as a student to list out at list five different project topics you feel you can research/work on and submitted to your supervisor for approval of one from it. Ensure you select project topics that is much related to your course of study and which material for such topic(s) will be easily accessible to reduce stress, money, time, defense etc.
Before you go into project or research work, as a student you have to ask yourself some question, why am I writing on this topic, why did my project supervisor approve this topic for me, what will I gain from writing this project work, this work is it related to our everyday life, economy, status?, will this work be beneficial to me and the society?, what are the aims of a project etc
Aims of writing a project
- To discover new ideas
- To help the society
- To increase knowledge
- Give room for others to do more research on our work
- Find our reason why something happen or is happening
- For improvement
- Save life
- To make a law, theory
- To show relationship between two variable and many more (all this are answered in the project in chapter one “Significant of the study, aims and objectives of the study”)
STANDARD FORMAT FOR PROJECT RESEARCH WRITING
Project research writing is divided into four parts, they include;
- The Preliminary pages: This is the first part of a project work. This part is very important in writing any project work. It is called the preliminary pages because it is the first part that will be seen before other, it gives the viewer the mind set of what the content is all about and it contains;
- Title page
- Certification/Approval page
- Table of content
- List of tables
- List of figures
- List of symbols/Nomenclature- if available or in need
- The Body (Main work/project proper): This is where all about your work is explained in details, with facts backing it, analysis of the project, your findings after you carried out the research work, what other think have done about your work. This part contains
- Chapter One – Introduction
- Chapter Two – Literature Review
- Chapter Three – Research Methodology
- Chapter Four – Data Presentation, Analysis, Result, Discussion of Findings
- Chapter Five – Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
Note- Some faculty or college end this part at CHAPTER FOUR which means research methodology and data presentation and analysis is merged in CHAPTER THREE
- References: Quoting authors, journals, books, where you collected information to write your project. This part is very important as any mistake will lead to plagiarism- coping someone’s work word to word and also note referencing or acknowledging the person(not preliminary acknowledgment)
PRACTICAL ASPECT OF THE ABOVE PROJECT WRITING FORMAT
Title page: This is the first page of every work, it is the first words which the reader/viewer will read to know what is contained in your work. It comprises of the title of the project work, the name of the researcher, matriculation number, the reason for the project work which is in partial fulfillment of the award of **** degree in your course of study, your faculty, name of the institution and date (month and year only) note this must be in capital letter example
THE MACHINES BEHIND A MOVING CAR
A PROJECT PRESENTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR DEGREE (B.ENG) IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF PORT HARCOURT, RIVERS STATE.
Certification otherwise called the approval page
This is to certify that this project work titled “the machines behind a moving car has been accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Bachelor of degree (B.Eng) in the department of mechanical engineering, Faculty of engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.
Which is signed by
Head of Department
Dean of Department
Dedication is done mostly to God only, but some research add only their sponsor (parent or guidance)
This contains all those who have help you achieve this far, supervisors, lecturers, HOD, friends, family members who have contributed to the success of project work.
Abstract is an important page of your project work. It summarizes all what you have done in just a page with few lines. Abstract must be short and contains statement of the problem, findings, methodology, conclusion, recommendations etc in a small writing.
Table of content
It contains details on the main headings, subheadings and page numbers of the work with their respective pages number and where they can be found in the body work
List of tables/figures/symbols
Arrangement of tables, figures, symbols accordingly with their respective page numbers and where they are located in the work
THE BODY/MAIN WORK
Chapter One – Introduction
It is the general introduction of the work which is Background of the study, Statement of the Problem, Scope of the Study, Purpose of the Study/aims and objectives of study, Significance of the Study, Research Questions and Research Hypotheses.
Chapter Two – Literature Review
It comprises of the other works researchers has made in your topic; Conceptual Framework, Theoretical Framework, Review of Empirical Studies and Summary of Literature Review. Please quote/reference authors of such work that is related to work
Chapter Three – Research Methodology
It explains the way in which data is collected, where it is collected, type of sampling used and most importantly the method you used to carry out your research work. They include Research Design, Area of the Study, Population of the Study, Sample and Sampling Technique, Instrument for Data Collection, Validity of the Instrument, Reliability of the Instrument, Procedure for Data Collection, Method of Data Analysis.
Chapter Four – Data Analysis and Presentation
This page is the writer/researchers page. It explain mainly how the data collected was analysis, how it was analyzed, what method is used to analysis the data, result of the data analyzed
It comprises of Data analyses based on Research Question, Testing of hypotheses, result gotten from the analysis, analyzing the result, discussing the result and Summary your findings.
Note- Mathematical knowledge is required as this chapter involve calculations. The data may be represented in a table, bar chart, pie chart, histogram, graph etc
Chapter Five – Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
Contains; Discussion of Findings (Summary), Implication of the Study, Limitations of the Study- challenges you encountered during your research, conclusion and Recommendations.
Conclusion should be drawn from your previous chapter then recommending what you think will be the solutions..
It’s the arrangement of sited authors that you used their works to carry out your project work. It includes their name(s), year of publication, title of their publication, name of pressed if available etc and should be arranged in an alphabetical order using the MLA or APA or Chicago format.
Example : Awosika, Y. (2005) The relationship between changes in perception towards a academic subject final achievement. Ibadan journal of educational research. 61 (2) Pp. 45-52
Other work done to make sure the project was achieved they include, researcher’s letter, questionnaires etc
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